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Regent Street, London, England, viewed from Piccadilly Circus, 1923.
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General strike in Britain, 1926. Mr Punch thanking members of the British public who kept essential services running during the strike. Cartoon by Leonard Raven-Hill from Punch, 19 May 1916.
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British suffragette movement. Mrs Pankhurst (right) Mrs Flora Drummond and Cristabel Pankhurst in the dock accused of conspiracy, 14 October 1908 during the struggle for votes for women. Photograph.
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Unrest in Russia: Revolutionary uprisings in 1905. The arrest of a strike leader in St Petersburg at the end of the 1905 uprisings. From Le Petit Journal, Paris, 24 December 1905.
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Female pedlar selling printed ballads in the street. 17th century London.
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William Laud (1573-1645),  Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633, religious adviser to Charles I. Persecuted  the Puritans, attempted to force Anglican liturgy on Presbyterian church in Scotland, and laid down new canons of the Laudian church. Engraving 1814
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Julius II (born Giuliano della Rovere - 1443-1513) Pope from 1503. Known as the Warrior Pope.  Julius with Michelangelo.
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Trial of Charles I, January 1649. Charles  (1600-1649) king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1625 on trial by Parliament in Westminster Hall, London. Charles, as an absolute monarch, did not accept the authority of the court and his refusal to plead was construed as a guilty plea.
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Puritan satire in William Laud (1573-1645),  Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633, religious adviser to Charles I. Persecuted  the Puritans, attempted to force Anglican liturgy on Presbyterian church in Scotland, and laid down new canons of the Laudian church.
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Title page of Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes (London, 1651). Hobbes (1588-1679) English political philsopher. Argued for absolute rule.
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Russian foreign policy. Nicholas II (1868-1919) Tsar of Russia from 1894, arriving at Cherbourg, France, on a state visit. From Le Petit Journal, Paris, 11 October 1896.
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Unrest in Russia. French sympathy for Russian revolutionaries, our brothers. From L'Assiette au Beurre, Paris, 14 June 1902.
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Anti-Semitism in Tsarist Russia. Pogrom in Kishinev (Kichinev) capital of Bessarabia, 1903. The anti-Jewish riots and massacre began at noon on Easter Sunday and rioters included seminarists from local religious colleges and students.
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Crimean War (Russo-Turkish War) 1853-1856: The Russian bubble burst by the victory of the Allies at the Battle of Alma, 20 September 1854. Nicholas I of Russia is shown disintegrating under the impact of an allied shell. Cartoon from Punch, London.
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Red army parade, Moscow, 1923. After the painting by Konstantin Youon. Russian.
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National Recovery Agency which operated in the United States during the 1930s Depression. Blue Eagle window card, displayed by storekeepers when the NRA started.
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The American Depression: Camp outside Washington of the ex-servicemen who marched on the city asking for the bonuses promised to them to be paid in a lump sum. The government could not grant their request due to a budget deficit.
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Summer: Children with a little cart bringing food and drink to their parents who are Haymaking. Chomolithograph c1870.
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Title page of Architecture Hydraulique by Bernard Forest de Belidor (Paris 1737). Belidor (1698-1761) French military and civil engineer, born in Spain.
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Robert O'Hara Burke (1820-1861) Irish explorer and leader of the Burke & Wills Expedition to explore the interior of Australia (1860-1861).  Burke and Wills died of starvation on their return journey.  Engraving from Heroes of Britain in Peace and War by Edwin Hodder (London, c1880).
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Jean Baptiste von Helmont  (1577-1644), Belgian chemist, physiologist and physician, born in Brussells. Engraving after the frontispiece of his Oriatrike.
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Thomas Bilney (c1495-1531) English martyr, on his way to the be burned at the stake at Bishopsgate, London, having been condemned to death for heresy. Engraving from Our Own Magazine London, 1881.
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Count Julius Andrassy (1823-1890) Hungarian statesman, supporter of Kossuth and the struggle for independence (1848-1849). In exile until 1858: Prime Minister of Hungary 1867.  Engraving c1880.
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Clara Butt (1872-1936) celebrated English contralto born at Southwick near Brighton, Sussex. She made her debut in 1892.  In 1920 she was created Dame Commander of the British Empire (DBE) for the work she did entertaining the troops during her career.
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John Watkins Brett (1805-1863) English telegraph pioneer who, with his brother Jacob, founded the General Oceanic Electric Telegraph Company (1845). Engraving from Les Merveilles de la Science by Louis Figuier (Paris, c1870).
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Thomas Bazeley (1797-1885) English cotton manufacturer, merchant and politician. A member of the Anti-Cornlaw League.  Member of Parliament for Manchester 1858-1880.   Engraving from The Illustrated London News (London, 4 April 1885).
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Jagadis Chandra Bose (1858-1937) Indian botanist and physicist, demonstrating electrical changes in plant stems (1926).  Halftone from a photograph.
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Nicocolo Fontana Tartaglia  (1499-1557) Italian mathematician and engineer.  Title page from the first part of his General trattato di numeri et misure (Venice, 1556).
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Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) English journalist, novelist and poet born in India. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907.  Cartoon by Will Owen (1869-1857) showing Kipling looking at a print of Queen Victoria by William Nicholson.  From The Tatler (London, 15 October 1902).
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Verney Lovett Cameron (1844-1894) English explorer in Central Africa, born at Radipole near Weymouth, Dorset. Cameron's expedition to Africa (1872-1875). His party being attacked by a buffalo. Cameron was chosen by the Royal Geographical Society to find Livingstone, but arrived after Livingstone was dead. He traced the Congo-Zambesi watershed for a great distance, and explored the southern half of Lake Tanganyika. Engraving from Le Journal de la Jeunesse (Paris, c1879).
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Charles William Siemens (born Carl Wilhelm von Siemens - 1823-1883) German mechanical and electrical engineer born near Hanover.  Brother of Werner von Siemens.  He took British nationality in 1859.  Invented the regenerative (open hearth) furnace which developed into the Siemens-Martin process for the production of large quantities of steel.   Cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne in the Punch's Fancy Portraits series from Punch (London, 28 July 1883).
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Sydney Henry Waterlow (1822-1906) London printer and philanthropist.  Lord Mayor of London 1872. From The Cabinet Portrait Gallery (London, 1890-1894).  Woodburytype after photograph by W & D Downey.
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Johnston Forbes-Robertson (1853-1937) English actor, considered to be the leading Hamlet of his day.  A member of Henry Irving's theatrical company.  His first outstanding success was in The Profligate by Arthur Wing Pinero (1889).  From The Cabinet Portrait Gallery (London, 1890-1894).  Woodburytype after photograph by W & D Downey.
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Henry Enfield Roscoe (1833-1915) English chemist who did research in Heidelberg with Bunsen.  Professor of chemistry at Manchester University (1856-1886). From The Cabinet Portrait Gallery (London, 1890-1894).  Woodburytype after photograph by W & D Downey.
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James Payn (1830-1898) English writer and poet, author of 100 novels of which the most successful were Lost Sir Massingbird (1864) and By Proxy (1878).  Editor of Chamber's Journal (1859-1874) and the Cornhill Magazine (1882-1896). From The Cabinet Portrait Gallery (London, 1890-1894).  Woodburytype after photograph by W & D Downey.
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Julia Neilson (1868-1957) English actress. Played Drusilla Ives in the first production of The Dancing Girl by Henry Arthur Jones at the Haymarket Theatre, London, (1891) and Hester Worsley in A Woman of No Importance by Oscar Wilde (1893).  In 1891 she married the actor Fred Terry, brother of Ellen Terry.  From The Cabinet Portrait Gallery (London, 1890-1894).  Woodburytype after photograph by W & D Downey.
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Dr Rowland Taylor (d1555) English Protestant martyr. Taylor, vicar of Hadley, Essex, arriving in the town under armed guard to await execution by burning at the stake, a victim of the persecution of Protestants under the Roman Catholic queen Mary I. Chromolithograph from a mid-19th century edition of  Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
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Solon (c640-559 BC) Greek lawyer, poet and merchant. Engraving from a likeness engraved on a gem.
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Colin Campbell, Baron Clyde (1792-1863) Scottish soldier: commanded the  Highland Brigade in Crimean War:  commanded British forces during Indian Mutiny 1857-1858: created field-marshal 1862. Engraving c1880.
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One of the last climbing chimney sweeps carrying a mattock for scraping the inside of chimneys, a brush to sweep the loose soot, and sacks for bagging up soot. Sweeps not only suffered badly from sores, they were also susceptible to cancer of the scrotum. Engraving from London Labour and the London Poor by Henry Mayhew (London, 1861).
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Stendahl, pseudonym of Henri Marie Beyle (1783-1842) French novelist.  His masterpieces are Le Rouge et le Noir  (The Red and the Black) (1830) and La Chatreuse de Parme (The Charterhouse of Parma) (1839). Lithograph.
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The Prince Imperial. Prince Louis Napoleon (1856-1879), son of Napoleon III of France and Empress Eugenie, as a cadet at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Served in the British army and was killed in the Zulu War.  From The Illustrated London News (London, 6 March 1875).
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Peter Graham (1836-1921) Scottish painter. Cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne in the Punch's Fancy Portraits series marking Graham's election as a Royal Academician. Engraving from Punch (London, 16 July 1881).
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Construction of the Eiffel Tower, Paris, France. A steel girder being lifted into place with a crane. From La Nature (Paris, 1889).
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French postal service. Men working in the main letter sorting office, Paris, France. Engraving from Le Journal de la Jeunesse (Paris, 1886).
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French postal service. Mail train approaching a railway station platform fitted with apparatus for catching sacks of mail from the moving train. Engraving from Le Journal de la Jeunesse (Paris, 1886).
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Sarah Gamp, a character from the novel Martin Chuzzlelwit by Charles Dickens (1843-1844) drinking tea in her bed-sitting room. The name Gamp for an umbrella comes from her, and her umbrella is beside the fire. It is also a term for a midwife, which was one of her callings. Illustration by 'Phiz' (Hablot Knight Brown 1815-1892).
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Most miraculous organ. Phrenology, the assessment of a subject's mental faculties by the study of the external conformation of the cranium. A phrenologist amazed by the head of his subject. Cartoon by Robert Seymour (1800-1836) at the height of the craze for phrenology. On the wall is a picture of Franz Joseph Gall (1757-1828) one of the founders of the science. Lithograph.
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Surgeon and his assistants, before the introduction of anaesthetics, prepared to perform an amputation at the shoulder. Surgeon stands, left, next the assistant surgeon (behind patient). An assistant on the ground supports the arm to be removed, and the two figures standing on the right support the patient. Bell's comment on this operation was It requires decision and rapidity: and the knife is to be handled more like a sabre, than a Surgeon's scapel. Engraving from Illustrations of the Great Operations of
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Amputation of the arm at the shoulder. On the left the incision has been made, exposing the head of the humerus. On the left the flap has been enlarged and the head of the humerus dislocated. From Illustrations of the Great Operations of Surgery by Charles Bell (London, 1821). Hand-coloured engraving.
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Hernia Cerebri: Rupture of the Dura Mater by the rapid growth of a brain tumour. On the left are bone fragments removed from the rupture. The bottom two figures are forms of dressing. From Illustrations of the Great Operations of Surgery by Charles Bell (London, 1821). Hand-coloured engraving.
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(Friedrich) Max Muller (1823-1900) Anglo-German orientalist and philologist, born at Dessau, who moved to England in 1846.  Cartoon by 'Ape' (Carlo Pellegrini - 1838-1889) from Vanity Fair (London, 6 February 1875).  Chromolithograph.
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Thomas William Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1822-1909) English landowner, agriculturist and countryman.  Inherited Holkham Hall, Norfolk, England, at the age of 20 and carried out a programme of improvements on the estate.   Cartoon by 'Spy' (Leslie Ward, 1851-1922) from Vanity Fair (London, 4 August 1883).  Chromolithograph.
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General Noel de Castelnau (1851-1944) French Army officer.  One of the leading French commanders during the First World War.  Castelnau in 1918.
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General Louis Felix Marie Francois Fouchet d'Esperey (1856-1942) French army officer.  In the First World War he commanded French forces on both the Western and Balkan fronts.
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General Joseph Gallieni (1849-1916) French army officer, trained at the St-Cyr military academy.  Retired in 1914 but recalled at the outbreak of the First World War. Retired due to ill health in March 1916. Afte the picture by Ferdinand Roybet (1840-1920).
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General Charles Mangin (1866-1925) French army officer who had command in the First World War.  At the end of thear he was appointed to the Supreme War Council. Mangin in 1918.
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Geoffrey Chaucer (c1345-1401) English poet. Portrait from an early 15th century manuscript of the poem De Regimine Principum by Thomas Hockleve (c1411). Hockleve (1370?-1450).
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A man from Prince William's Sound, Alaska. Engraving from Captain Cook's Original Voyages Round the World (Woodbridge, Suffolk, c1815).
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Sir John Franklin (1786-1847) British naval officer and arctic explorer commanded the 1845 expedition of the ships 'Erebus' and 'Terror' to search for the North West Passage. All members of the expedition perished. Here the remains of two of them have been found by members of the Franklin Search Expedition of 1857, led by Francis Leopold McClintock (1819-1907) in command of the 'Fox'. Engraving from Le Voleur (Paris, 4 May 1877).
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(Joseph) Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) French composer. After a photograph.
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(Paul Marie Theodore) Vincent D'Indy (1851-1931) French composer.  From a photograph.
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Cesar (August) Franck (1822-1890) Belgian composer. After a photograph.
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Jean Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) French composer and musicologist.
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Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Italian composer and violinist, born in Verona.
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WW Jacobs. Wiliam Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943) English short story writer, born at Wapping, London, best remembered for his short stories which ranged from the humorous to the macabre such as The Monkey's Paw.  Jacobs in his study at Buckhurst Hill, Essex, England.
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Hernando Cortes or Cortez (1485-1547) Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Mexico. Engraving of 1724 by George Vertue after the painting by Titian. Conquest Empire Colonisation
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Corn mill powered by a horizontal water wheel through the gears in central section.The pipe, the wheel, the shafts, and the gearing all constructed from wood. From Theatrum Machinarum Novum by Georg Andreas Bockler (Nuremberg, 1673).
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Henry Morton Stanley (1840-1904) born John Rowlands at Denbigh, Wales, Welsh-born American journalist and explorer.   Cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne in the Punch's Fancy Portraits series from Punch (London, 28 October 1882).
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Charcoal burners in the Lake District, north west England, known locally as colliers. From November to April the men cut and hauled wood. In April and May they peeled bark off the oak wood they had cut and this would be used for tanning leather. In summer they made charcoal, living in or near the woods in teams of about 12 so that there would be someone to tend burning clamps at all times. Engraving from The English Illustrated Magazine (London, 1884).
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Charcoal burner at work in Kent, England. The charcoal burners would spend the summer in the woods cutting timber and producing charcoal, living with their families in caravans or, more usually, in rough cabins constructed of wood and turf. Woodcut from The Saturday Magazine (London, 9 January 1836).
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Projecting the image of the Sun through a refracting telescope on to a screen in order to study sunpots. From Rosa Ursina by Christoph Scheiner (Bracciano, 1630). Engraving.
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Coal cutting machine on rails, powered by compressed air produced by a steam engine at the pithead. From The Practical Dictionary of Mechanics by Edward H Knight (New York and London, c1880). Engraving.
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Thomas Cecil (1542-1623) 1st Earl of Exeter and  2nd Baron Burghley. English soldier. Crushed the Earl of Essex's rebellion (1601). Engraving.
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Mary Herbert,  Countess of Pembroke (born Mary Sidney - 1561-1621) English noblewoman, sister of the poet Philip Sidney and dedicatee of his 'Arcadia'. Engraving.
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Pythagoras (6th century BC) Ancient Greek Philosopher and mathematician, with the Egyptian priests. Engraving fromVies des Savants Illustres by Louis Figuier (Paris 1866).
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Diving bell supposed to have been used by Alexander the Great (356-323 BC). Woodcut from a 15th century edition of The History of Alexander the Great.
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Perpetual motion: Grinding mill driven by horizontal water wheel, which is itself driven by water from a cistern. The wheel is supposed also to raise water to the cistern by an Archimedean screw. The wheel, C, has curved blades, an early form of water turbine. Engraving from Theatrum Machinarum Novum by George Andreas Bockler (Nuremberg, 1673).
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Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902) German pathologist and founder of cell pathology. In later life he turned to anthropology and archaeology and collaborated with Schliemann on the excavations at Troy. Engraving from Scientific American (New York, November 1901).
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John Winthrop (1714-1779) American physicist, mathematician and astronomer.  In 1740 he observed a transit of Mercury. Engraving, 1896.
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John Jeffreys Pratt, lst Marquis of Camden (1759-1840) British politician. Served in the ministry of William Pitt (the Younger). Appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1795 where he made himself unpopular with his opposition to Roman Catholic emancipation. His term of office ended with the rebellion of 1798. Created Marquis of Camden in 1812.  Engraving from The National Portrait Gallery (London, 1830).
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Lighthouse keepers relaxing after dinner on the Eddystone lighthouse built on the Stone 13 miles South-east of Polperro, Cornwall, England. This is the fifth Eddystone lighthouse, designed by James Douglas, engineer to Trinity House, built between 1878 and 1892. Engraving from The Strand Magazine (London, 1892).
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Second Eddystone lighthouse built on the Stone 13 miles South-east of Polperro, Cornwall, England, which claimed up to 50 ships a year. Built by the English engineer and engraver Henry Winstanley (1644-1703) in 1699, destroyed in a gale on 26 November 1703. From The Sea by F Whymper (London, c1890). Engraving.
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The fourth Eddystone lighthouse built on the Stone 13 miles South-east of Polperro, Cornwall, England, which claimed up to 50 ships a year. Built by the English civil engineer John Smeaton (1724-1792) beginning in 1756 it was in operation for 127 years.
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Chadwell Springs near Ware, Hertfordshire, England, a source of water which was taken by means of the 38 mile (61.155km) artificial waterway known as the New River to New River Head, London. The New River was created by Hugh Middleton (c1555-1631) between 1609 and 1613. From Scenes in England by the Rev. Isaac Taylor, London, 1822. Hand-coloured engraving.
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A Duck Decoy showing the mouth of the tunnel. Wild duck were decoyed into the mouth of a net covering a curving ditch or 'pipe'. A dog was trained to drive birds to narrow end of the tunnel where they were caught and killed. A common practice on the Lincolnshire Fens and the Norfolk Broads. Most of the birds were sent to London for sale. From Scenes in England by the Rev. Isaac Taylor, London, 1822. Hand-coloured engraving.
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Nicholas II (1868-1918) Tsar of Russia from 1894, and his son the Tsarevich Alexei (1904-1918), reviewing Russian troops, 1915.
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Lily Brayton (1876-1953) English actress. Made her debut in 1896 in Frank Benson's company. Married the actor Oscar Asche (1871-1936).  Brayton as Katharina in The Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare.
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Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) Norwegian Arctic explorer, scientist and diplomat. Nobel prize for peace 1920. Nansen on skis in the summer of 1896 at the time of his return to Franz-Joseph Land after his unsuccessful attempt to reach the North Pole. Engraving.
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George William Frederick Charles, 2nd Duke of Cambridge (1819-1904): English soldier: cousin of Queen Victoria: field-marshal: commander-in-chief of army 1887: In the Crimean (Russo-Turkish) War 1853-1856 he commanded a division in  1854: present at Alma and Inkermann. Engraving, c1860.
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Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816) Anglo-Irish dramatist and Whig politician.  Author of The Rivals and of The Duenna a comic opera-play produced at Drury Lane Theatre, London, 1775. Proprietor of Drury Lane after David Garrick.  Friend of Charles James Fox.  Engraving after the portrait by Joshua Reynolds.
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John Bunyan (1628-1688) English Puritan preacher.  Author of The Pilgrim's Progress (London, 1678). Engraving, 1832.
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Frederick III of Saxony, The Wise (c1463-1525) Patron of Martin Luther and supporter of the Protestant Reformation. Engraving from Martyrologia by John Mason, London, 1851.
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